EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun

JEL codes: G1, G Jako kolejną ważną przesłankę należy wskazać użyteczność podjętego tematu zarówno z punktu widzenia indywidualnych inwestorów, jak i zarządzających funduszami. Additionally, the local challenge of low social capital and access to social services bringing question of successful ecological adaptations. Rodzi to niebezpieczeństwo wystąpienia w Polsce kryzysu płatniczego w przypadku pojawienia się, w odpowiedniej skali, szoków wewnętrznych lub zewnętrznych.

The very hint of any global limitation as suggested in the report The Limits to Growth was met with disbelief and rejection by businesses and most economists. Introduction 1. Following it climate changes are just one of the possible results that we are facing now.

Recently, more and more alarming, upcoming events and world reports giving a proof for worrying observation of the scholars, presenting world system complexity, where short-term, profit oriented action, do not meet long-term social or ecological processes. Motivation for this thesis was built on general struggle with broadly accepted paradigm, described as economic growth. Following that trial, proposed different thinking for the Polish peripheral region, being under strong pressure of economic development.

Socio-ecological cohesion The project tittle, not existing in academic nomenclature, express the reflection of the bioregion as a social construct. The idea of the bioregion: the community living in its ecosystem borders, where community is the part of the ecosystem. Transforming it into the project: introduce ecological adaptation should be supported by social infrastructure brining its visibility and vice versa social infrastructure should benefit the ecological system, even indirectly, education, building consciousness.

However, as result of desirable, economic development, with the perception of living in unlimited world, the system had accelerated social and ecological problems.

IPBES report1, World Inequality Report2, Global Footprint Network3 and also the research of Stockholm Resilience Centre4 about planetary boundaries — those are only few examples of studies emphasizing the urgency of the human activity adaptation.

Furthermore, opening urgent need for a new paradigm that integrates the continued development of human societies and the maintenance of the Earth system Steffen et al. Zooming into the local scale, the ecological problematic become less clear, differed by the geographical conditions.

First view presents positive way of territorial management, while the problems and pollution appear in the cities and surrounding it industries.

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The bioregional landscape has been transformed since centuries, in a way making questionable ecological adaptations for Szczecin and its region as part of West Pomerania, Poland. The particular challenges on the area are elaborated on following page. Introduction Figure 2.

Ecological deficit vs reserve source: Global Footprint Network, 11 Figure 3. Monocultural industrial forests and Ina river, closed to EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun Strumiany source: Google Earth 12 Figure 4. Sand storms, April source: to.

Introduction Ecological challenges of Szczecin and its Oplacalne strategie handlowe ETF Having looked at the broad problem field, the planetary limits to growth, attention is turned to present and future ecological challenges, being the result of human activity. Region, not only because of its agricultural character, but also because of big amount of biological reservoirs have a great potential, unfortunately put under the threat of climate changes and biodiversity lost.

Projections of the future The future challenges for the region are climate conditions assumed much lower overlapping with global IPBES report in precipitation, higher average temperatures the same time questioning the ongoing and rapid weather phenomena, will influence management on the region.

Monocultural forests and uniform agriculture will make ecosystem less resilient for climate adaptations.

The very hint of any global limitation as suggested in the report The Limits to Growth was met with disbelief and rejection by businesses and most economists. Introduction 1. Following it climate changes are just one of the possible results that we are facing now.

However, the ecological challenges, are not the only one, that region is struggling with. Figure 6. More and more rare small scale local flooding during spring season source: gs Extreme low precipitation causing forest fires, August source:radioszczecin. The project area, Szczecin with its region, place outside global cities network, being peripheral Polish secondary city, concentrating its development on the economic growth. The same process is visible in Szczecin area.

By prioritizing private investments, national1 and regional2 strategy are not advancing the society. It is expressed in sectoral politics, social institution, even academical discussion, strongly believing so called trickledown.

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This attitude EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun follows the World Systems Model by Immanuel Wallerstein, showing how highly pointless this approach is Moyer, Failed development models in peripheral places gives second important angle to the problem field, showing not only global ecological limits, but also local, social limits to growth.

Introduction Figure 8. Right: Project area: Szczecin Metropolitan Area and Szczecin EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun zone with km of cross border connection for the analysis purpose. Introduction 15 Figure 9.

Aerial view of Szczecin city centre - developed for cultural class purposes, main attraction to foreigner investments.

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Introduction Periphery Contextualizing broad problem field, the choice of project location bringing additional challenges in historically determined conditions.

Divided history, transferring region from one nation to another, have been placing it always in peripheral, agricultural position. Since 16th century city and its regions have been developing as satellite of Berlin with strong emphasis on port and harbour giving Germany access to North Sea and Baltic Sea countries. Soviet land management together with failed transformation did not cross peripheral characteristic.

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Recent, neo-liberal strategies, with major focus on the infrastructural projects, not balancing enough social disadvantages. What is more important, strategies do not take into account future challenges: social and ecological.

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Taking as an example Social Inclusion Zone Specjalna Strefa Włączeniathe area defining cross problematic municipalities since high unemployment level, low Local Human Development Index, lack of services and mobility enlarge its borders in Villages with non-functional bus stops, limited access to kindergartens or schools, lack of communal places and closed small shops and local services are common situation area setting.

Social Inclusion Zone is overlapping with areas having strictly agricultural character. Thus, regional urban settlements are highly dependent on the ecological conditions of the area. Last 15 years, with the European Union support, bring visible changes.

Thanks to supportive cohesion policies, from the EU site, strong emphasis has been put on the rural, peripheral areas.

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However, in practice those internal peripheries and following it landscape, through fragmented sectoral policies, are not developing enough environmentally, neither equally the social structure. Figure Present spatial strategies, translating regional vision into spatial conditions are contributing in economic development of the area.

Exploring the possibilities of different approaches in spatial planning, focusing on the bioregion and its society might help in creating alternatives. The Polish spatial structure, express its planning failures: fragmentation, exclusive public space, inaccessible housing, car oriented infrastructures, weak public transport without accessibility, lack of access to green areas, lack of water resilience, lack of biodiversity in the urban environment.

Polish spatial chaos started being already described as non-profitable in terms of national cost 19,8 billion euro of national budget each year. One of two connection between two parts of the Szczecin city - motorway crossing old city town source: gs Introduction Figure Single-family houses in offer of the private developer source: www.

Random development EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun Warzymice- south Szczecin border. Abounded tenement house inside Szczecin city centre source: www. Strategies beyond growth, not focusing on economic development, based on switch of priorities. Theoretical Framework with Sustainability Section in the chapter 3. Research Design shows combination of values.

Theory Paper in the chapter 9. Appendix analyses spatial transformative elements in both theories. To exceed the negative development, the strategy is focusing on bioregional problematic at first.

Bioregional framework, guiding the regional analysis, allowed to understand the constructed structures of the landscape Chapter 3.

Landscape and the territory and Chapter as well as its bigger threats and challenges. Possible solutions - adaptive spatial transformations have been described in three out of four design principles of the regional strategy Chapter 5. Considering the bioregion as a cultural construct Meredith,as the consequence of primary conditions of the area landform and water conditionshas been challenging.

Introduction 21 Figure Impression of the region The community of the West Pomerania region has been resettled through historical conditions, cutting the logical order of traditional landscape management. Four main design principles, introducing landscape adaptation, supported through network of social infrastructure, are aiming for cohesion between society and its environment.

Succeeding spatial interventions Chapter 6: Spatial Interventions has been used for the reflections on Polish spatial planning regulation. Recommendations, together with the reflections Chapter 7:Implementation, Chapter 8: Reflections, stakeholder interviews in Chapter 9.

Appendix explore theoretical possibilities of the implementations for the presented model of bioregional strategy, as well as practical opinion of the stakeholders. Avoiding, reducing and reversing this problem, and restoring degraded land, is an urgent priority to protect the biodiversity and ecosystem services vital to all life on Earth and EKOSYSTEM SERVICE Compromise Review Analysis Review dla zrownowazonego zarzadzania uzytkowaniem grun ensure human well-being. Due to its rural character, it will significantly influence the bio-production, but also the daily life of the citizens.

Akademia Finansów i Biznesu Vistula - Warszawa Polska polityka pieniężna w roku — obrona starych szańców Streszczenie Dzięki dużej redukcji deficytu sektora finansów publicznych, głównie za sprawą ograniczenia wydatków budżetowych, Polsce w połowie roku udało się zakończyć procedurę nadmiernego deficytu po sześciu latach jej obowiązywania. W związku z tym oraz wskutek zmiany ekipy rządzącej w Polsce w roku nastąpiło wyraźne odejście od polityki konsolidacji fiskalnej i poluzowanie polityki monetarnej. W ostatnich latach zarysowuje się tendencja do spadku znaczenia polityki pieniężnej, która mocno traci na efektywności, tak ze względu na ewidentne błędy jej autorów, jak i na fakt, że od wielu lat nie potrafi sobie poradzić z sytuacją ogólnej nadpłynności systemu bankowego.

Broadly accepted strategy, based on the growth paradigm, has been focusing on developing the region on its economical level, through big infrastructural projects and investment under foreigner capital.

That has no direct translation into quality of living of its citizen, neither quality of the environment.

Он ни разу не посмотрел по сторонам. - Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит.  - Если бы Танкадо подозревал некий подвох, он инстинктивно стал бы искать глазами убийцу.

Additionally, the local challenge of low social capital and access to social services bringing question of successful ecological adaptations. Research design Figure Problem matrix as the summary of the complex problems in the areas on different scales source: author 2. Research design 25 Figure By combining cross-scale problematics Carr, : global - ecological climate adaptation with biodiversity lost and local - social low social capital, exclusion and lack of social services can propose spatial planning strategy developing society together with its environment.

More than that, the approach can provide reflection and recommendation for planning tools like polices or governmental cooperation models.

Research objective is to challenge the theory on practical level by building strategy on the peripheral context. That, would give a base for introducing the recommendations for more successful spatial planning and through stakeholders lens reflection on theoretical framework.

Sub-RQ1: What are the main spatial characteristic of the bioregion and society on the local and regional level? How does it correspond with the ecological structure of the region?

Questioning the local context Sub-RQ2: What are the major problems and challenges on social and ecological level on different scales? Sub-RQ3: What kind of spatial interventions would answer defined problems and challenges, allowing for future adaptation?

  1. Socio-ecological Cohesion - Master Thesis by Anna Klimczak - Issuu
  2. Стратмор увидел пятна крови на ее блузке и тотчас пожалел о своей вспышке.

How should them be introduced in the strategic way? Questioning the type of spatial elements 28 Sub-RQ4: What are local actors and stakeholders needed to be involved? In which way and how they can benefit? Sub-RQ5: What kind of improvement in Polish spatial planning could be made for more successful governmental cooperation and social involvement? Until what extent those improvements are possible to introduce?

Intended outcome The research is expected to propose regional strategy with examples of the design intervention and the reflection or recommendations for local planning tools.