It is worth noting, however, that the Union of Polish Metropolises was founded in by mayors of five cities, i. Anglo-Saxon, literature rather than adapt it to the domestic cultural milieu. Rejtana 16c, Rzeszów, Poland gniew poczta. Lis R. Main concepts of macro-urban settlement forms in the cognitive approach Spatial scale Cognitive approach functional.
The case of the reaction of the potential authors of the jubilee volume for the critique of their papers, and — more extensively — their strategies, reflect a wider phenomenon of the cultural code.
It is related to the lack of abilities of 1 training and use of talents, 2 conversation and discussion, 3 exchange of information and ideas, and 4 sincere cooperation in groups and teams Szomburg The undereducated — as a result of the doubtful experiments with the GCE exam and successive education reforms in general — classes of graduates, devoid of critical thinking skills, unable to read, for whom the Internet is a basic source of knowledge Stopaare being prepared for the profession of sociologist.
K. Tchórzewski: wejście aukcji nieprzesądzone
The new model of development postulated by J. The unconventional, if not anarchic, thinking out of the box, characteristic of Polish culture, as well as the art of improvisation, i. The education authorities and those supervising science should thus be engaged in removal of these obstacles rather than in Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board invalidating of the role of the Polish language as the main means of public communication in Poland Jałowiecki ; Uchwała…, The point is that the publication process is determined not only by substantive criteria, but also by non-substantive criteria, including group participation, disciplinary culture, and the expertise Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board have.
A superficial treatment of the issues of the publication strategies, in which they are reduced to publication in English, result from the ignorance of the sociological elements of the publication process and the mechanisms for the academic career implemented in the areas of national languages Wagner — not only Polish but even more obviously French, German, Spanish, and Chinese Jałowiecki The Przestrzeń Społeczna Social Space journal intends to support this course of action while respecting the norms of Western civilisation and finding an obvious place for Polish culture within it rather than distancing itself from it.
The current extent of the impact of our journal indicates that this belief is correct. References Jałowiecki B. Rykiel Z. A commentary on Ulrich Best. Stopa M. Rejtana 16c, Rzeszów, Poland gniew poczta. A minor interest of Polish sociology in regional sociology involves even more marginal interest in the metropolisation processes, which interrelate urban and regional studies and invalidate the division in urban and rural issues.
The interdisciplinary exchange of ideas about the city as a social phenomenon is unsatisfactory while urban and regional studies are still more an appeal than reality. An adaptation of the basic concepts of New Urban Sociology can be seen as one chance to overcome the marginalisation.
The question of metropolises in Poland is touched upon and the limited number of the metropolises pointed to.
Metropolitan ambitions of middle-sized towns are noted. Politisation of the metropolitan issue is pointed to in this context. It is argued Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board the concept of metropolitan area has yet to be emancipated from that of metropolis. Forms of the macro-urban settlement, poorly known in sociology, are discussed. This includes the concepts of: the city, urbanised area, conurbation, urban aggregation, urban agglomeration, metropolitan area, urban complex, metropolis, megalopolis, daily urban system, functional urban region, urban field, and metropolitan region.
Methods and criteria of delimitation are summed up. A method is lacking that would allow for a reliable delimitation of urban agglomerations on the national scale according to uniform criteria. The question of standardisation of terminology is discussed, which Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board normative oriented. These tendencies resulted not only from the attempt to get precise terminology but also from a methodological monism that assumed that only one correct set of relations between names and con- socialspacejournal.
The efforts to standardise terminology showed thus symptoms of nominalism because a generally accepted term was sought for the form of the macro-urban settlement while the fact was ignored that such an action could hardly reduce the number of related concepts, so even standardised terms must have left many different meanings.
The terminological standardisation would thus have resulted in misconception. Models of the management of metropolises are discussed. Metropolitan poviats are opted for Poland as a basic model of the management of anachronic county boroughs.
It is argued that these boroughs be abolished. The territorial system should be unified legally but diverse territorially, a principle that with difficulty appeals to politicians and sociologists. Associations of communes or poviats should be a sufficient tool for coordinating the development of metropolitan areas. In the political debate, the notion of the metropolis is confused with that of metropolitan area, and actual metropolitan features with their statistical or administrative appearances.
This would be, however, politically risky because it would result in an amalgamation of centreleftist town with its right-wing surroundings. Metropolis, even if institutionalised, is basically a social phenomenon, based on functions performed rather Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board political nomination. If therefore middle-sized towns wish to develop these functions they require reasonable strategies of development to achieve thier goal.
Fascinated by its courage of being released from its traditional urban legacy, Polish would-be metropolitan sociology appears to choke the new concepts of American sociology that need not be adaptable to the domestic conditions.
The quest for new concepts seems highly important if old ones are no longer adequate. Any attempts to transgress the traditional sociological parochialism would be welcome, but new metropolitan sociology abstracted from the achievements of social geography hardly seems possible.
Metropolis and Polish sociology Six main points may be concluded from the inspiring article by Katarzyna Kajdanek An adaptation of the basic concepts of New Urban Sociology and the related Socio-Spatial Perspective can be Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board as one chance to overcome this marginalisation.
The reason is that the development of metropolitan collectivities is less and less determined by behaviour of the local actors while it is more and more strongly influenced by decisions made at the global level Kajdanek Anglo-Saxon, literature rather than adapt it to Opcje binarne Handel w Kenii domestic cultural milieu. The nature of the metropolis The metropolisation process can be recognised as a new phase of urbanisation, considered in terms of concentration and de-concentration on various spatial scales.
The process is related to the development of the information economy, in which the relation between the city and its region Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board being reduced for those with global economy via relationships in the network of metropolises Friedmann ; Batten ; Castells ; Sassen This is to say that local and regional hierarchical relationships are replaced by non-hierarchical global relationships.
This process can be analysed in terms of the production of urban space and consists of changing the relationship between Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board central city and its umland, as well as of discontinuous mode of use of urbanised areas Jałowiecki The discontinuity means the involvement of social and economic relations in global rather than local networks ibidem. It would be, however, hardly possible to discuss the metropolisation process when abstracting from the metropolis.
In Antiquity, it meant a Greek, and implicitly also the earlier Phoenician, city-state that founded colonies overseas. Two meanings resulted from the term in the modern ages. One referred to the imperialist state in relation to its colonial possessions overseas. In the other meaning, metropolis means a large or, more strictly, important city as a centre of political national capitaleconomic or ideological power over the subordinated area.
The function rather than size, understood in terms of population, was thus always the essence of the metropolis. The mediaeval Cracow, with its population of 5, was a European metropolis while the metropolitan status of the contemporary Łódź, sizedis considerably less obvious not only compared with the above case but also with the contemporary city of Luxemburg, sized 94, Now the metropolis is a city that performs high Bollinger Band i Strategia EMA central-place functions, i.
This especially applies to the functions of the fourth sector of the economy, i. The metropolis is therefore a modern settlement unit, which is a headquarters of international companies and institutions, as well as national but having developed relationships with foreign countries; it is a centre of the mass me- 26 socialspacejournal.
Global metropolises polarise the metropolitan, i. The metropolis concentrates capital in all its forms: economic, financial, infrastructural, human, social, cultural, and political Gold Cross Trading System dependent space extends beyond.
Due to its dynamic, the metropolis is processual, and the communication of metropolises with each other produces the tunnel effect; information is transferred between the cities without stopping on the way, making cities grow even faster, aggravating the already formed contrast with the non-metropolitan hinterland Jałowiecki The innovativeness of the economy is now, and probably always was, essential for the very concept of metropolis.
The city aspiring to become the metropolis should be a seat of subsidiaries of international corporations, diplomatic missions, banks, medial firms, and universities with a considerable proportion of international academics and students; it should have good transport and communication links with foreign countries via the networks of motorways, high speed railways, and air connections; the tertiary sector should dominate in employment structure, with a substantial share of modern telecommunication technologies; it should also be a centre of international cultural, scientific, and political events Soldatos From the socio-cultural point of view, metropolises are determinants of late modern, if not post-modern, culture.
They concentrate many inhabitants and visitors with highly complex group affiliations and social statuses. Heterogeneity is thus a basic characteristic of the metropolis Gruba The ideal of the pluralist cosmopolitan society is realised in metropolises.
Informal social control is reduced to a historical minimum Gruba at the expense of the extreme growth in the range of formal social control under the pretext of ensuring public safety Wątroba ; Skórzyńska-Ślusarek This results in a loosening of social ties, as well as ephemerality and contingency of social contacts and encounters Gruba The reduction of spatial distances is thus accompanied by a growth in social distances, with the appearances of their reduction, which result from a de-formalisation Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board their external manifestations.
The existence of the metropolitan Jałowiecki or crea- socialspacejournal. This fact is related to the uniqueness and specificity of the metropolis as a place Bassand This is to say that the metropolis is a city that performs important specialised functions.
- Ostatnie słowa Pawła Adamowicza.
- K. Tchórzewski: wejście aukcji nieprzesądzone | zywiecforum.pl
Metropolises in Poland Taking the above mentioned criteria as a departure point, only Warsaw can be undoubtedly recognised as a metropolitan centre in contemporary Poland. With the application of more liberal criteria, Cracow, Wrocław, Tricity of Gdańsk, Sopot, and Gdynia and Poznań should be added to this set.
Katowice, on the contrary, would have much less chance of being included in the set, even though a consideration of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union of 14 county boroughs would increase the chances considerably.
Łódź, isolated in terms of transport, being depopulated as a result of the process of the post-socialist de-industrialisation, and lacking supranational functions, could not Przyklad strategii dywersyfikacji poziomej included in the set. The metropolitan aspiration of Rzeszów, sizedand lacking any considerable international functions, could be assessed either in ambitious terms Jałowiecki or in those of substantive incompetence, consisting of a misidentification of the metropolis with the region.
The metropolitan aspirations of Zielona Góra Łatwińskisizedand lacking any extra-regional functions, could Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board, in turn, recognised as odd.
It is necessary to add here that the recognition of the given settlement system as a metropolis is to be based on, as was already mentioned, performed functions rather than administrative decisions or political tenders.
It is worth noting, however, that the Union of Polish Metropolises was founded in by mayors of five cities, Opcje Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board strategia Zygzakowata. Warsaw, Cracow, Poznań, Wrocław, and Gdańsk, the fact that seems to confirm the limited set of Wirtualny handel Chicago Choice Board Polish metropolitan centres.
Seven subsequent cities were, however, included in the Union, i. Łódź, Szczecin, Bydgoszcz, Katowice, Lublin, Białystok, and Strategia handlowa Amboker., a fact that should be assessed as a confusion of metropolises and the main cities Dziewoński ; Rykiel b. Within 28 socialspacejournal. Warsaw, as the only Polish city again, was included in the group of the potential MEGA or the European metropolises of the third order while seven further cities, i.
The set of eight cities seems to include the maximal number of centres that might be recognised as Polish metropolises in functional sense.
It is worth noting here that Markowski, Marszał, 1 the metropolis is a form of the city since it is the city rather than urban agglomeration, discussed beyond, that transforms in the metropolis.
The reason is that the concept of the metropolis is, as was already mentioned, based on performed functions while the concept of urban agglomeration is based on spatial structure. What differentiates the metropolis, even though not necessarily metropolitan area, from a large city with its agglomeration is its international rank or importance of such a settlement system, i.